Which of the following is most likely to cause an increase in the quantity supplied of perfume?

Which of the following is most likely to cause an increase in the quantity supplied of perfume?

Solved exercises on inferential statistics step by step

Consumer equilibrium is the point at which a consumer finds his highest utility for a given price and income. The consumer is in equilibrium when, with the income or budget available to him, he can acquire the goods that give him the greatest satisfaction.

Equilibrium is obtained from that combination of goods X and Y, which being within the consumer’s reach (within the budget space) allows him to obtain the highest level of utility, i.e., he will be on the highest indifference curve.

To obtain the equilibrium, the consumer must know his tastes and his budget constraint, which will depend on the level of income and the prices of the goods, so graphically we can represent it as the point of tangency between the budget constraint and the indifference curve.

Analytically, the consumer’s equilibrium is obtained by equating the slope of the balance line (budget constraint) to the slope of the indifference curve, i.e., the “Law of Equality of Weighted Marginal Utilities” is satisfied.

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An ideal diatomic gas contained in a container occupies a volume of 500 cm³ at a pressure of 4.0 bar and a temperature of 300 K. It undergoes an expansion to a final state in which it occupies a volume of 1000 cm³ at a pressure of 1.0 bar. It undergoes an expansion to a final state in which it occupies a volume of 1000 cm³ at a pressure of 1.0 bar. What is the entropy change of the gas in this process?

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Answer B sounds like the principle of entropy increase, but it is not. It speaks of the entropy increase of the entire universe, not just the system. In a real process the entropy variation of a system can be negative, as long as that of the environment is positive and larger.

Being irreversible, there is an increase in the entropy of the universe. Being adiabatic, it means that there is no heat exchange between the system and the environment, so the entropy of the environment is not modified. Therefore, all the entropy increase occurs within the system.

The compression process is isothermal and quasi-static. In this process, as the volume is compressed, work is done on the gas, releasing an equivalent amount of heat (since the internal energy does not change). Therefore the entropy change of the system is negative.

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The total utility curve (as we can see below) has an ascending behavior until it reaches a saturation point where it begins to fall. The shape of the curve is explained by the fact that as we consume additional units of a good or service we value them less and less, until we reach a point where we no longer want to consume more.

In economic terms we say that the total utility is the utility that gives us the consumption of all units of the good (in this case 5 cakes). Marginal utility, on the other hand, is the utility provided by each additional unit of the good (the utility of each additional pie we consume).

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In the following graph we can see the total utility and marginal utility curves of our example. As we can see, the former is increasing until we consume the fourth pie (saturation point) where it starts to be decreasing.

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A Business Income Tax (IRE) is created, which will be levied on all income, benefits or profits of Paraguayan source coming from all types of economic activities, primary, secondary and tertiary, including agricultural, commercial, industrial or service activities, excluding those income taxed by the IRP.

The income generated by the goods, rights, obligations, as well as the acts of disposition of these, and any increase in the taxpayer’s patrimony, shall also constitute a tax generating event.

2. Simple Partnerships, Corporations, Limited Liability Companies, Limited Joint Stock Companies, Limited Partnerships, Limited Partnerships and Capital and Industrial Partnerships.

When the personal property, real estate and rights belonging to an individual are recorded in the accounting of the sole proprietorship, the alienation, assignment and lease of such property shall be subject to this tax.

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