The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, known by its acronym in English as CEDAW (Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women), was adopted in December 1979 by Resolution 34/180 of the General Assembly of the United Nations. Argentina approved it by law 23.179 of June 1985 and since 1994 it enjoys constitutional hierarchy (art. 75, inc. 22, CN), located at the apex of the legal pyramid, together with other instruments for the protection of human rights, enunciated in that constitutional provision.
The CEDAW takes as its starting point the structural and historical discrimination against women, recognizing and protecting their rights. The same assumption inspires the sanction of the Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence against Women, approved by Law 24.632, which specifically addresses the male violence suffered by women in societies with a patriarchal matrix such as ours.
Convective heat transfer consists of the contact of a fluid with an initial temperature with another element or material with a different temperature. Depending on the variation of the temperatures, the molecular energy charges of the fluid will vary, and the interacting elements of the system will perform a work, where the one with higher energy or temperature will yield it to the one with lower temperature. This thermal transfer will take place until the two have the same temperature; while the process is carried out, the molecules with lower density will tend to rise and those with higher density will drop in level. The molecules in the lower layers increase their temperature.
A heat exchanger is a device constructed to efficiently exchange heat from one fluid to another, whether the fluids are separated by a solid wall to prevent mixing, or whether they are in direct contact. Heat exchangers are widely used in refrigeration, air conditioning, heating, power production, and chemical processing. A basic example of a heat exchanger is a car radiator, in which the hot radiator fluid is cooled by the flow of air over the radiator surface.
Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment, and Eradication of Violence against Women
Equality is also a fundamental principle in the European Union. Since the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam on May 1, 1999, equality between women and men and the elimination of inequalities between them have been an objective that must be integrated into all the policies and actions of the Union and its members.
Special consideration is also given to cases of double discrimination and the unique difficulties faced by women who are particularly vulnerable, such as women belonging to minorities, migrant women and women with disabilities.
The complexity deriving from the horizontal scope of the principle of equality is also expressed in the structure of the Law. The articles of the Act deal with the general projection of the principle in the different regulatory spheres, and in its additional provisions it specifies the corresponding amendments to the very diverse laws that are affected. Thus, the Law is born with the vocation of becoming the law-code of equality between women and men.
Certain types of conventions may become law or be defined by regulatory bodies to formalize or enforce compliance (e.g., the convention on which side of the road a vehicle should drive on is regulated). In other contexts, conventions have the character of unwritten law (for example, which clothes are suitable for a man and which for a woman).
In science, some constants, quantities or measurement scales are conventions, i.e. they do not represent a measurable property of nature, but are an agreement reached by the scientific community that works with them (e.g. measuring in meters, weighing in kilograms and other measurements of the International System).
Conventions developed under the auspices of the United Nations are considered to apply only in countries that have ratified them and are generally considered to have the same force as international treaties. Some of the conventions ratified by the largest number of countries are the Geneva Conventions.